The Best Water Purifier
Water heating refers to a thermodynamic process that uses an energy source to raise the temperature of water passed its normal range. People use hot water to cook, clean, bathe, and for space heating. Various metal vessels, known as hot water heaters, exist to produce a limited supply of heated water, such as kettles, cauldrons, pots, and coppers. Each batch of water will vary in temperature based on the overall consumption rate of hot water. Technology has provided specially-designed appliances, also known as hot water heaters, that produce a continual supply of hot potable water. Each of these appliances has a sub-type that produces hot water in various ways, depending on the desired outcome.
Storage Water Heaters
Storage water heaters rank as one of the most popular consumer options, because of its inexpensive costs to buy and install. According to experts, storage water heaters lasts between ten and thirteen years, depending on the fuel source, until the unit develops a structural problem requiring a replacement. Tank water heaters can combine with other storage and backup units. Storage water heaters cost more than electrical models. In addition, most gas storage water heaters have a labor-intensive installment process; however, they only cost about one third as much to operate. A handful of gas storage water tanks meet the Energy Star standards.
Conventional Storage Water Heaters: The U.S. Department of Energy provides a comprehensive guide to choosing “Energy Savers” storage water heaters.
Choosing a New Water Heater (PDF): An extensive guide providing several tips to choosing the appropriate water heater for a consumer's living conditions.
Tankless Water Heater
A tankless water heater is a cost and energy efficient unit. These units save money by not heating water until ready for consumption. In addition, on-demand water heaters save space, because there's no storage tank. A tankless water heater typically lasts between fifteen and twenty years and often carry extended warranties. These units are also easily repairable. A gas tankless water heater with the Energy Star stamp of approval qualifies for a thirty percent tax credit, because of their energy efficiency. Tankless water heaters require electrical power to operate.
Consumers Report: Water Heater Buying Guide: Consumers Report instructs water heater buyers on choosing the best model for their property. Among the most recommend water heater models include Rheem water heaters and AO Smith water heaters.
Troubleshooting Rheem Water Heaters: A comprehensive troubleshooting guide to Rheem Water Heaters.
Hybrid Water Heaters
Electrically-powered heat pump water heaters are the most energy-efficient water heater available to consumers. A hybrid water heater is the only electric water heater that qualify for a federal tax credit of thirty percent at the end of a fiscal year; however, they must be added to an existing primary residence. An electric water heater has an added heat pump to a regular storage tank electric water heater, and use heated ambient to produce hot potable water. Consumers can opt to purchase a heat pump add-on and then install it onto an existing water heater, or buy a manufactured hybrid water heater with a pre-installed heat pump. Hybrid water heaters are ideal for all-electric homes.
AO Smith Water Heaters Service Handbook: The official service handbook for AO Smith water heaters.
Water Heating: The ACEEE provides a comprehensive guide to water heating.
Solar Water Heaters
Solar water heat units use Sun-radiating technology to produce hot potable water. Solar water heat units are currently the most energy-efficient option without the necessary add-on features. Consumers can offset the costs of these units by applying the federal tax credit of up to thirty percent of the cost and installation expense. The cost-effectiveness of solar-powered water heater depends on the statutes of the jurisdiction where the consumer resides. Solar water heat units last indefinitely, and may require minor repairs over time. Solar-powered water heaters can be used in conjunction with storage water tanks and a tankless water heater to produce hot water during overcast days.
Solar Power Water Heaters (PDF): A renewable energy fact sheet regarding solar power heaters.
Solar Water Heating: The Oregon Energy Trust summarizes the pro and cons of solar water heating, and how it can both benefit the individual, industry, and environment.
Water Heater Safety
The older hot water heaters get the higher chance it has of exploding, which can cause substantial damage, injury, and death if the appliance does not have safety devices installed on the units. A water heater produces temperatures that exceed 212 degrees Fahrenheit, which can inflict serious steam burns if the pressurized liquid leaks. In fact, water temperatures exceeding 190 degrees Fahrenheit will burn on contact. Installers should place a temperature and pressure relief valve on the top of the water heater to dump the heated water if the temperature becomes too high. The majority of plumbing codes require a discharge pipe connecting to the pressure and relief valve to direct the flow of the discharged water down the drain. In addition, many plumbing codes require that a gas or propane water heater be elevate eighteen inches above the garage floor to reduce fire hazards. All tank-type heaters should remain strapped to an adjacent wall to prevent the unit from tipping over and busting the water and gas pipelines. Tempering valves should also be placed on the outlet of a water heater to avoid the risk of scalding when near the unit. Solar and heat pumps will need efficient design and engineering protocols to regulate temperature fluctuation of the existing water heaters, otherwise the risk of contracting Legionnaires disease increases without a prompt resolution.
Residential Water Heater Safety: The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Inspectors provides a do-it-yourself maintenance guide to residential water heaters.
Code Requirements on Thermal Expansion Controlin Domestic Service Water Heating Systems (PDF): An extensive document detailing the dangers of thermal expansion in domestic water heating systems and solutions to minimizing these problems.